Agency of brokers: In their language brokering interactions, they mediate intergroup boundaries and through language brokering extract meaning and construct and modify arugments, worldviews, and identities on an ongoing basis. (15).
Active bi-cultural agents.
Article and theory: language change shaping the experiences of youth and their attitudes to their heritage language.
Ordinary people responding to profound structural shifts in the linguistic economies of their families—the results of international migration.
Our analysis thus suggests that the greatest threat to the ideological assimilation of immigrants comes not from foreign involvement or transnational loyalties. Indeed, transnational involvement through remitting positively predicts adherence to an American identity. Instead, rejection of an American identity stems from the exclusion and discrimination that immigrants experience the more time they spend in the United States. Paradoxically, resistance to an American identity is something ‘made in the USA” through the accumulation of negative experience with U.S. people and institutions. Rather than berating immigrants for a lack of assimilative zeal and comparing them invidiously with immigrants of the past, American citizens would do better to look closely at the impact of their own attitudes and behavior toward immigrants on the proclivity of newcomers to seek acceptance as Americans. (212)